心理学上的显著差异

比较苹果重量的女人
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The just noticeable difference (JND),也被称为差异阈值,是一个人可以检测50%时间的最低刺激水平。例如,if you were asked to hold two objects of different weights,最明显的区别就是你能感觉到一半的时间,两者之间的最小重量差。

重要的是不要混淆刚刚明显的区别和absolute threshold.虽然差异阈值涉及检测刺激水平差异的能力,the absolute threshold refers to the smallest detectable level of stimulation.

声音的绝对阈值,for example,would be the最低音量that a person could detect.The just noticeable difference would be the smallest体积变化that a person could sense.

刚刚显著差异概念的发展

差异阈值首先由生理学家描述,然后实验心理学家名叫恩斯特·韦伯,后来由心理学家古斯塔夫·费奇纳进一步发展。Weber定律有时也被称为韦伯-费克纳定律,这表明,最明显的差异是原始刺激的恒定比例。

例如,想象一下,你向参与者呈现了一个声音,然后慢慢地提高了分贝水平。You had to increase the sound level by 7 decibels before the participant could tell that the volume had increased.In this case,the just noticeable difference would be 7 decibels. Using this information,you could then use Weber's law to predict the just noticeable difference for other sound levels.

事实上,在不同的试验中,仅仅可以注意到的差异是不同的。这就是为什么JND通常是通过进行多次试验来确定的,然后使用参与者至少能检测到50%时间的最小水平。

The intensity level of the stimulus can also play a role in how much people notice changes.如果光线很亮,非常昏暗,人们可能更容易注意到强度的较小变化,如果同样的变化是在明亮的光线下进行的话。

例如,想象你在一个黑暗的电影院里。房子里的灯慢慢地开始亮起来,你会立刻注意到光强度的微小变化。Afterward,你离开剧院,到外面阳光明媚的地方去。If the same changes in light intensity were made outside,你可能不太可能注意到它们,因为刺激水平要高得多。

The just noticeable difference applies to a wide variety of senses including touch,味道,嗅觉,hearing,还有视力。它可以应用于亮度等事物,甜味,weight,压力,喧嚣,除此之外。

只是显著差异的例子

  • Imagine that you volunteer for a心理学实验在你们学校。研究人员要求你每只手拿两小量沙子。An experimenter slowly adds tiny amounts of sand to one hand and asks you to say when you notice that one hand feels heavier than the other.最小的重量差异,你可以检测到至少一半的时间是刚刚明显的差异。
  • You are watching television with your spouse,但音量太小,听不见。You ask your spouse to turn it up.他按了两下音量键,but you still cannot tell a difference in the volume.在你注意到音量增加之前,你的配偶再按两次按钮。
  • 你在公寓里开派对,邻居过来请你把音乐关小一点。You and your guests immediately notice that the music is much quieter,but your neighbor does not notice a difference in the volume because the change is below his difference threshold.
  • You volunteer for another psychology experiment at your school.This time,实验人员把少量的糖放在一个装水的容器里,让你喝。当你注意到水的甜味和普通水的甜味时,你会说。The smallest level of sweetness you can taste half the time is the difference threshold.
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