生物视角在心理学中的作用

In This Article
Table of Contents

There are many different ways of thinking about topics in psychology. The biological perspective is a way of looking at psychological issues by studying the physical basis for animal and human behavior. It is one of the在心理学的主要观点and involves such things as studying the brain,免疫系统, nervous system, and genetics.

一个心理学的主要争议一直集中在相对贡献先天与后天。Those who take up the nurture side of the debate suggest that it is the environment that plays the greatest role in shaping behavior. The biological perspective tends to stress the importance of nature.

The biological perspective in psychology
Illustration by Brianna Gilmartin, Verywell

The Biological Perspective

这个field of psychology is often referred to as生物心理学或生理心理学。这个心理学分支has grown tremendously in recent years and is linked to other areas of science including biology, neurology, and genetics.The biological perspective is essentially a way of looking at human problems and actions.

生理学和生物过程研究中的心理学,因为发挥了作用,显著的earliest beginnings。查尔斯·达尔文首次提出的想法,进化和遗传学在人类行为的作用。

自然选择的影响一定的行为模式是否会传递给后代。行为,有助于生存更容易被流传下来,而那些证明危险是不太可能继承。

Consider an issue likeaggression。精神分析的角度来看可能会认为侵略的童年经历的结果,unconsciousurges. The behavioral perspective considers how the behavior was shaped by association,加强, andpunishment。A psychologist with a社会视角可能看的群体动力和压力,有助于这样的行为。

The biological viewpoint, on the other hand, would involve looking at the biological roots that lie behind aggressive behaviors. Someone who takes the biological perspective might consider how certain types of brain injury might lead to aggressive actions. Or they might consider genetic factors that can contribute to such displays of behavior.

主要主题领域

Biopsychologists研究许多相同的事情,其他的心理学家做的,但他们有兴趣在寻找如何生物力量影响人的行为。一些主题,心理学家可以探索利用这种观点包括:

  • Analyzing how trauma to the brain influences behaviors
  • Assessing the differences and similarities in twins to determine which characteristics are tied to genetics and which are linked to environmental influences
  • 探索因素是如何遗传影响这样的事情侵略
  • 研究如何退行性脑部疾病影响的人如何行动
  • 圣udying how genetics and brain damage are linked to mental disorders

这种观点显着的增长,近年来随着技术用于研究大脑和神经系统变得越来越先进。

如今,科学家们使用的工具,如PET和MRI扫描来看看如何大脑发育,药物,疾病和脑损伤影响的行为和认知功能。

长处和短处

其中使用生物角度分析心理问题的优势之一是,该方法通常是很不科学的。研究人员利用严谨的实证方法,其结果往往是reliable实用。生物学研究已经帮助产生有用的治疗方法适用于各种psychological disorders

这种方法的缺点是它往往没有考虑对行为的其他影响。世事如情绪,社会压力,环境因素,童年经历,文化变量也能起到心理问题的形成作用。

出于这个原因,需要记住的是生物的方法就是在心理学的许多不同角度的一个非常重要。通过利用各种寻找一个问题的方法,研究人员可以想出,可以有帮助的现实世界的应用不同的解决方案。

一个字从Verywell

有从中查看人的思想和行为与生物的角度不同的角度仅代表这些方法之一。

通过looking at the biological bases of human behavior, psychologists are better able to understand how the brain and physiological processes might influence the way people think, act, and feel. This perspective also allows researchers to come up with new treatments that target the biological influences on psychological well-being.

Was this page helpful?
Article Sources
Verywell心灵只使用高品质的来源,包括同行评议的研究,给我们的文章中支持的事实。请阅读我们的编辑过程to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.
  • Hockenbury,DH&Hockenbury SE。心理学发现。New York: Worth Publishers; 2011.

  • 帕斯托里诺,EE,道尔波蒂略,SM。What Is Psychology? Foundations, Applications, and Integration。波士顿,MA:圣智学习;2015年。