在psychology,the term aggression refers to a range of behaviors that can result in both physical and psychological harm to yourself,others,或环境中的对象。这种行为集中在伤害他人的身体或精神上。It can be a sign of an underlying mental 特色在线娱乐城游戏：PT老虎机health disorder,a substance use disorder,or a medical disorder.
Aggression can take a variety of forms,including:
While we often think of aggression as purely in physical forms such as hitting or pushing,psychological aggression can also be very damaging.Intimidating or verbally berating another person,例如，are examples of verbal,mental,and emotional aggression.
- To express anger or hostility
- To assert dominance
- To intimidate or threaten
- To achieve a goal
- A response to fear
- A reaction to pain
- To compete with others
- 冲动攻击性:Also known as affective aggression,impulsive aggression is characterized by strong emotions,usually anger.This form of aggression is not planned and often takes place in the heat of the moment.When another car cuts you off in traffic and you begin yelling and berating the other driver,you're experiencing impulsive aggression.研究表明，冲动的攻击，especially when it's caused by anger,,triggers the acute threat response systemin the brain,包括杏仁核，下丘脑，and periaqueductal gray (PAG).
- Instrumental aggression:Also known as predatory aggression,instrumental aggression is marked by behaviors that are intended to achieve a larger goal.Instrumental aggression is often carefully planned and usually exists as a means to an end.Hurting another person in a robbery or car-jacking is an example of this type of aggression.The aggressor's goal is to obtain money or a vehicle,伤害他人是实现这一目标的手段。
Factors That Can Influence Aggression
A number of different factors can influence the expression of aggression,including:
- Biological factors:Men are more likely than women to engage in physical aggression.While researchers have found that women are less likely to engage in physical aggression,they also suggest that women do use non-physical forms,such as verbal aggression,relational aggression,and social rejection.
- Environmental factors:How you were raised may play a role.在成长过程中看到更多侵略形式的人更有可能相信这种暴力和敌对行为在社会上是可以接受的。Bandura's famousBobo doll experimentdemonstrated thatobservationcan also play a role in how aggression is learned.观看视频剪辑的儿童，其中一个成年模特对一个波波娃娃表现出攻击性，他们更有可能在有机会的情况下模仿这些动作。
- 物理因素：Epilepsy,dementia,精神病，alcohol abuse,drug use,and brain injuries or abnormalities can alsoinfluence aggression.