变态心理学是心理学分支涉及精神病理学和异常行为，通常在临床环境中。这个术语涵盖了广泛的疾病，from depression to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) to personality disorders.辅导员，clinical psychologists,心理医生经常直接在这个领域工作。
为了了解变态心理学，首先要理解我们所说的术语abnormal."在表面上，the meaning seems obvious;abnormal indicates something that's outside of the norm.
许多人类行为都可以遵循所谓的正常曲线。Looking at this bell-shaped curve,大多数个体聚集在曲线的最高点附近，这就是所谓的平均值。在正常曲线的两端落得很远的人可能会被认为是abnormal.""
重要的是要注意，正常和异常之间的区别不是好坏的同义词。考虑一个特征，比如智力。A person who falls at the very upper end of the curve would fit under our definition of abnormal;this person would also be被认为是天才.显然，这是一个不符合规范的例子，实际上是一件好事。
When you think about abnormal psychology,rather than focus on the distinction between what is normal and what is abnormal,focus instead on the level of distress or disruption that a troubling behavior might cause.如果一种行为在一个人的生活中引起了问题，或者对其他人造成了干扰，then this would be an"“异常”behavior that may require some type of mental 特色在线娱乐城游戏：PT老虎机health intervention.
异常心理学有许多不同的观点。While some心理学家或精神病医生may focus on a single viewpoint,many mental 特色在线娱乐城游戏：PT老虎机health professionals use elements from multiple areas in order to better understand and treat psychological disorders.These perspectives include:
- The psychoanalytic approach:这种观点来源于西格蒙德·弗洛伊德的理论。心理分析方法表明许多异常行为源于无意识的想法，欲望，and memories.While these feelings are outside of awareness,they are still believed to influence conscious actions.Therapists who take this approach believe that by analyzing memories,behaviors,thoughts,and evendreams,people can uncover and deal with some of the feelings that have been leading to maladaptive behaviors and distress.
- 行为方法：This approach to abnormal psychology focuses on observable behaviors.In behavioral therapy,重点是强化积极行为，而不是强化不适应行为。行为方法只针对行为本身，不是根本原因。在处理异常行为时，a behavioral therapist might utilize strategies such asclassical conditioning and operant conditioningto help eliminate unwanted behaviors and teach new behaviors.
- The medical approach:This approach to abnormal psychology focuses on the biological causes of mental illness,emphasizing understanding the underlying cause of disorders,可能包括遗传，related physical illnesses,infections,and chemical imbalances.Medical treatments are often pharmacological in nature,although medication is often used in conjunction with some type ofpsychotherapy.
- 认知方法：The cognitive approach to abnormal psychology focuses on how internal thoughts,感知，推理导致心理紊乱。认知治疗通常侧重于帮助个人改变自己的想法或反应。认知疗法也可以与行为方法结合使用，这种方法被称为认知行为疗法(CBT).
TheDiagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disordersis published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) and is used by mental 特色在线娱乐城游戏：PT老虎机health professionals for a variety of purposes.手册中列出了精神疾病，诊断代码，information on the prevalence of each disorder,and diagnostic criteria.
Some of the categories of psychological disorders include:
- Substance use disorders
- Mood disorders,such as depression and bipolar disorder
- Neurodevelopmental disorders,such as intellectual disability or autism spectrum disorder
- 人格障碍，比如边缘型人格障碍，avoidant personality disorder,和强迫症人格障碍
异常心理可能集中在非典型行为上，but its focus is not to ensure that all people fit into a narrow definition of"正常。”In most cases,it is centered on identifying and treating problems that may be causing distress or impairment in some aspect of an individual's life.通过更好地理解abnormal,"researchers and therapists can come up with new ways to help people live 特色在线娱乐城游戏：PT老虎机healthier and more fulfilling lives.