了解患有多动症的孩子

条款目录

A mom filling out a form about her child at her pediatrician's office.
The parent versions of the ADHD checklists will help evaluate for ADHD symptoms at home.Photo by RichLegg/Getty Images

多动症经常被误解。

从诊断和测试到ADHD治疗,很多父母对所有的信息感到困惑,很多错误的信息,关于ADHD。

If you take a step back and look at ADHD just like you do any other chronic childhood condition,像哮喘一样,diabetes,或癫痫,then you will have a much easier time parenting your child with ADHD and getting help.

Symptoms

Thesymptoms of ADHD通常分为三大类,including:

  • having trouble paying attention (inattention)容易分心
  • being hyperactive or"“走”(hyperactivity
  • being impulsive or doing things without really thinking about them (冲动性

记住,很多孩子偶尔会分心或有点过于活跃。To be considered a true symptom of ADHD,这些症状也会导致某种损伤,例如,leading to behavior problems,,学校绩效问题,difficultymaking and keeping friends,等。

类型

Children can have ADHD even if they don't have all of the symptoms of ADHD.That is because there are several types of ADHD,including:

  • 注意缺陷多动障碍注意力不集中型-其中包括那些主要有注意力不集中症状的儿童,such as not being able to pay attention to details,容易分心,健忘,等。
  • 注意缺陷多动障碍超主动-脉冲型包括那些多动症和/或冲动症状的儿童,比如经常坐立不安,坐在座位上有困难,说话过度,在旅途中,interrupting others,having trouble waiting for his turn,等。
  • 注意缺陷多动障碍Combined Type-如果孩子有ADHD的所有主要症状

A lot of people talk about ADD and ADHD as if they were two different things,reserving ADHD or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder for those kids who are hyperactive and ADD for those aren't.Both添加ADHD只是Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder虽然也不能真正描述一个人的多动症类型。

Diagnosis

Parents looking for a quick test for ADHD are going to be disappointed.Unfortunately,there is no blood test,X射线,或其他ADHD测试。Instead,your child's pediatrician will test your child for ADHD by:

  • 在访谈中询问孩子的父母开放式问题和重点问题
  • 提供调查问卷和ADHD症状检查表or ADHD rating scales for the parents and teachers
  • 评估儿童是否存在其他共存条件,比如行为障碍,,对立违抗症,抑郁,anxiety,以及学习障碍

Other ADHD tests are available,然而,美国儿科学会声明其他的诊断测试并不是用来确定ADHD诊断的常规手段。”These would include regular screening for high lead levels,常规甲状腺功能测试,脑成像研究(MRI,计算机断层扫描,SPECT,PET扫描,etc.),脑电图(EEG)or continuous performance tests (CPTs).

当你担心你的孩子患有多动症时,你的儿科医生是一个很好的开始。但是其他做ADHD测特色在线娱乐城游戏:PT老虎机试的健康专家包括儿童心理学家和儿童精神病医生。

治疗

Although there seem to be many ADHD treatments that you could use to treat your child with ADHD,only two types are recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics.这些推荐的ADHD治疗是ADHD药物,包括兴奋剂和非兴奋剂,and behavior therapy.

AAP声明behavior therapy可以包括“家长在行为治疗和课堂行为干预方面的培训,"把注意力集中在儿童行为问题与家庭关系中的困难”或者他在教室里的行为。

柱头周围的大部分ADHD药物,besides the fact that they are stimulants,revolves around theside effects他们造成。Originally,there were only two medications,利他林和adderall,他们只进了几剂。That often meant that a child had to tolerate any side effects he had,比如减肥,失眠症,or even changes in personality if he wanted to continue taking the medication.

Fortunately,现在有一个更大的选择,在ADHD药物和每一个可以在广泛的剂量范围。This makes it much easier to fine tune a child's dosage to maximize the medication's benefits and minimize or eliminate any possible side effects.

Commonly used ADHD medications include:

  • Methylphenidate- (or利他林
    • Concerta
    • Daytrana(补丁)
    • Focalin and福克林XR
    • Metadate CD
    • Metadate ER
    • Methylin Chewable Tablets
    • Methylin Oral Solution
    • Methylin ER
    • 利他林
    • Ritalin LA
    • Ritalin SR
    • Quillichew ER-一种长效咀嚼型利他林
    • Quillivant XR - a long acting liquid form of ritalin
  • 苯丙胺基
  • 非兴奋剂

These medications differ in how long they last (short-acting vs.long-acting),their side effects (which can differ from one child to another),and in what form they are available (capsules,补丁,药丸,etc.).If one doesn't work,你的儿科医生可能会调整剂量或者换一种直到你为你的孩子找到合适的药物。

If your child'sADHD medication is not working好,you may need extra help,which can include:

An evaluation by a child psychologist and/or a child psychiatrist can be helpful if your child with ADHD continues to struggle despite effective treatment.

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文章来源
  • AAP。Clinical Practice Guideline: ADHD: Clinical Practice Guideline for the Diagnosis,评价,儿童和青少年注意力缺陷/多动障碍的治疗。Pediatrics,Nov 2011,128(5)1007-1022
  • American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.评估和治疗注意缺陷/多动障碍儿童和青少年的实践参数。J是。ACAD.儿童青少年精神病学,46:7,JULY 2007.