20 Psychologist Specialties and Job Descriptions

Types of psych specialties

Verywell / Mary McLain

什么是different types of psychologists和what exactly do they do in the variety ofbranches of psychology? When people hear the term psychologist, many immediately imagine a man or woman sitting in an office, scribbling notes while a client sits on a leather fainting couch. Sure, there are plenty of psychologists who engage in this type oftalk therapy,但人们谁在工作field of psychology还做了其他各种东西。

Did you know that there are psychologists who study how people work and interact with the tools in their environment? Or that some psychologists come up with ways to help slow global warming? Below is a list of some of thespecialty areas和他们有关的任务包括。

Aviation Psychologists


对进行了le, an aviation psychologist might select or even develop psychological tests used to screen applicants for elite pilot positions. Because of the highly specialized and delicate nature of the job, it is essential to choose candidates who are healthy, stable, and capable of coping with intense pressure. Aviation psychologists utilize their knowledge of psychology to ensure that only the best people are chosen for these critical roles.

航空心理学家也可能与其他专业人士,包括工程师和人为因素心理学家的工作,设计飞机的不同部件如舱室或驾驶舱。通过在设计过程中考虑人的心理考虑,航空心理学家可以帮助确保这些产品与知觉的发展,注意,memory和other capabilities in mind.


These psychologists are also sometimes called biological psychologists or physiological psychologists. They study and perform research on the brain and behavior. By examining the neural bases of behavior, biopsychologists are able to understand different biological factors that might impact how people think, feel, and act.

This type of psychologist might also investigate how brain disease and injury impact behavior. By better understanding how people are affected by such injuries and diseases, researchers can also find new ways of preventing, treating, and managing serious brain illnesses and trauma.

Clinical Psychologists

Clinical psychologists评估,诊断和治疗个人经历的心理压力d mental illness。They also perform psychotherapy and develop treatment plans.

临床心理学家经常工作在医院,心理健康诊所和私人执业。特色在线娱乐城游戏:PT老虎机他们在各种治疗技术的培训,但可以专门治疗某些疾病或某些群体的工作。例如,临床心理学家会专注于一个领域,比如药物滥用治疗,child mental health, adult mental health, or geriatric mental health.

虽然临床心理学家往往在医疗机构工作,他们不是医生和in most cases cannot prescribe medications.

按照美国心理学家协会, clinical psychologists make an average of $80,00 per year.



认知心理学家may work in a variety of settings, including universities, research centers, rehabilitation facilities, hospitals, government agencies, and in private practice. Professionals in this field often perform a range of duties such as conducting research and working with patients.

As with other areas of psychology, cognitive psychologists often choose to specialize in a particular area such as memory, language development, attention, problem-solving, or learning disabilities.


This type of psychologist conducts research on community health issues. They also seek to educate the community and develop prevention programs. These professionals are focused on helping lead positive changes at both the individual and community levels.

You may find community psychologists working in a range of settings at universities, government agencies, community organizations, and private businesses as professors, consultants, policy advisors, program directors, and researchers.



Comparative psychologists study the behavior of different species, particularly how animal and human behavior differs. Why study animals? Because while there are obviously major differences, it is assumed that some things may hold true for all species.

Therefore studying the behaviors and responses of animals such as rats and dogs can provide insights into human behaviors as well. Such observations have proven important throughout much of psychology's history.

Thorndike's work with cats,Pavlov's work with dogs斯金纳的鸽子工作只是一些在动物行为可以提供深入了解人类行为比较心理学的例子。

Experimental psychologists (including comparative psychologists) make an average of $92,000 per year, second only to institutional-organizational psychologists in terms of income.



这些专业人士可以帮助企业制定营销信息,确定目标受众,开发的产品能够吸引消费者的特定,并了解对品牌和产品的态度是如何形成和变化。他们通过使用市场研究调查,实验的完成这些任务,naturalistic observations和consumer focus groups.

Counseling Psychologists


辅导心理学家使平均每年$ 85,000。至于临床心理学家,他们提供心理治疗并可以依法确定自己是持牌心理学家。


Cross-cultural psychologists看看人们跨文化和跨文化如何影响从属关系的行为如何变化。他们经常探索行为的不同方面如何可以是通用的或在不同的文化变化。

对进行了le, cross-cultural psychologists might investigate howparenting styles有所不同collectivist culturesversusindividualist culturesas well as how these differences in upbringing influence adult behavior.


发展心理学家研究整个生命周期的人类发展。一些集中在一个特定周期,例如early childhood,青少年,成年或老年。这些专业人士可以执行任务,例如谁可能有发育迟缓或残疾,调查与老化相关的问题,并研究语言能力是如何获得的评价孩子。


Educational Psychologists

These psychologists study how people learn and the educational process. This might involve developing instructional strategies and teaching techniques. Some educational psychologists study giftedness or learning disabilities.

This type of psychologist looks at how social, cognitive, and emotional factors impact the learning process. Some professionals in this field specialize in identifying and dealing with potential problems that might interfere with how children learn. Others specialize in researching the learning process, while some might instead focus on designing instructional materials that maximize learning outcomes.

教育心理学家做出的$ 75,000每年,平均略低于平均水平($七九○一○)的所有心理学专业,根据劳工统计局的美国局


Engineering psychologistsare focused on discovering ways to enhance human abilities by improving machines, equipment, technology, and work environments. While some may focus on more basic research, this is most often a very applied field. Engineering psychologists work to solve real-world problems and develop solutions that can have practical applications in everyday life.

Engineering psychologists may be tasked with developing technology that can be used in the healthcare industry to help patients recover faster. They also help design and refine products that people use each and every day, including mobile phones and motor vehicles.

Environmental Psychologists

Environmental psychologists explore the relationship between people and their surroundings, including natural environments as well as created environments. This might involve working on conservation projects, helping to protect endangered species, and investigating ways to halt global warming.



Forensic psychologistsfocus on the relationship between psychology and the law. This might involve acting as a consultant in criminal cases or civil disputes, performing child custody evaluations, and offering psychotherapy services to crime victims.



Health psychologistsare centered on how psychology, biology, social groups, and behavior influence wellness, illness, and overall health. They work with clients to help maximize well-being and improve both mental and physical health.



I-O psychologists研究工作场所的行为,如如何选择特定职位的最佳员工,以及如何提高员工的工作效率。一个I-O心理学家可能利用他或她的心理学原理知识来评估设计到屏幕候选人的具体工作角色。


Industrial-organizational psychologists are the highest paid category of specialists, earning an average of $125,000 per year.


Military psychologists practice psychology in a military setting. This can include such things as treating soldiers who have a mental illness or emotional distress, researching different aspects of military life, and helping soldiers transition back to civilian life.

Some military psychologists focus on performing psychotherapy within different branches of the military, while others apply their knowledge of the human mind and behavior toward recruiting, combating stress, training, decision-making, and leadership.



例如,他们可能会研究如何个性的形式和whether it can be changed。他们也可能调查某些人格特质是否绑定到特定的疾病或障碍,性格如何影响决策的人作出,并有助于人格发展的许多因素。

School Psychologists

学校心理学家help children cope with emotional, academic, social, and behavior problems in school settings. Professionals who work in this field of psychology play a vital role in the educational system, typically collaborating with parents, teachers, students, and other school staff to ensure that the learning environment is healthy, safe, supportive, and productive.

Children who are struggling with some sort of issue, whether it is behavioral, emotional, or academic in nature, can work with a school psychologist to come up with an effective plan to deal with the difficulty. School psychologists provide direct intervention or behavioral management when needed, or they may simply offer support and advice to students who need someone to talk to.

Social Psychologists

Social psychologists研究组,包括人在社交场合,以及如何影响群体的个体行为如何表现的行为。社会心理学家可能研究范围广泛的议题,包括态度,偏见,沟通,人际关系,侵略劝说


社会心理学家可以预期平均为$ 85,000个每年赚取。如果在公共或政府机构所采用,他们可以赚更多。

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  1. 劳工部美国能源部;劳工统计局。Psychologists.Occupational Outlook Handbook.更新2019年9月4日。

  2. Association for Children’s Mental Health.在学校遇到问题