约翰·鲍尔比传记(1907-1990)

依恋理论的创始人

John Bowlby attachment theory
Bolwby believed maternal attachments played a primary role in development.

Erin Lester/Cultura独家/盖蒂图片

约翰·鲍尔比是一位英国心理学家和心理分析学家,他认为儿童早期的依恋在后来的发展和心理功能中起着至关重要的作用。His work,along with the work of psychologist Mary Ainsworth,有助于附件理论的发展。

鲍尔比认为,孩子出生时就有一种生物程序化的倾向,即寻找并保持接近依恋的形象。这提供了滋润和舒适,但它也有助于孩子的生存。与护理者保持密切联系,可以确保孩子的需求得到满足,并保护他或她免受环境中的危险。

约翰·鲍尔比最出名的是

  • Being the originator of附着理论
  • 研究儿童发展
  • Influencing modern-day psychology,教育,child care,and parenting

生与死

February 27,1907 - September 2,一千九百九十

早期生活

Edward John Mostyn Bowlby was born in London to an upper-middle-class family.相信太多的亲情和关注会宠坏孩子,他的父母每天只和他在一起一点点时间。At the age of seven,他被送到寄宿学校,which he would later describe as a traumatic experience.

鲍尔比后来上了三一学院,剑桥他学习的地方心理学and spent time working with delinquent children.从剑桥大学毕业后,Bowlby volunteered at a school to gain experience and consider his career goals.他和两个不适应环境的孩子一起在学校里工作,决定了他的未来,并激励他成为一个孩子。精神病医生.

He then studied medicine at University College Hospital,接着在莫兹利医院学习精神病学。During this time,Bowlby also studied at the British Psychoanalytic Institute and was initially influenced by the work of梅兰妮·克莱因,创造游戏治疗技术的心理学家。He eventually became dissatisfied with Klein's approach,认为它过于关注儿童的幻想,而不太关注环境中的事件,包括父母and caregivers.

在1937年成为心理分析师后,二战期间,他在皇家陆军医疗队服役。

1938,他娶了一个叫乌苏拉·朗斯塔夫的女人,两人共有四个孩子。战争结束后,鲍尔比成为塔维斯托克诊所的主任,and in 1950 he became a mental 特色在线娱乐城游戏:PT老虎机health consultant to the World Health Organization (WHO).

职业与理论

Bowlby's early work with children led him to develop a strong interest in the subject ofchild development.He became particularly interested in how separation from caregivers impacted children.After studying the subject for some time,他开始对依恋儿童发展的重要性提出自己的看法。

1949,WHO commissioned Bowlby to write a report on themental 特色在线娱乐城游戏:PT老虎机health在欧洲无家可归的孩子。1951,由此产生的工作母婴保健与心理健康特色在线娱乐城游戏:PT老虎机was published.他在书中写道:"…the infant and young child should experience a warm,亲密的,以及与母亲(或永久替代母亲)的持续关系,两者都能得到满足和享受。”"

After the publication of the influential report,鲍尔比继续发展他的依恋理论。

Bowlby drew on a variety of subjects,包括认知科学,,发展心理学,evolutionary biology,and ethology (the science of animal behavior).他由此得出的理论表明,儿童与照顾者之间最早形成的联系具有巨大的影响,这种影响将贯穿一生。鲍尔比接受过心理分析师的培训,much like西格蒙德佛洛伊德,believed that the earliest experiences in life have a lasting impact on development.According to Bowlby,依恋也有助于让婴儿靠近母亲,thus improving the child's chances of survival.He suggested that both mothers and infants had evolved to develop an innate need for proximity.保持这种亲密,infants are more likely to receive the care and protection that they need to ensure their survival.

Bowlby was also influenced by the work of Konrad Lorenz,a zoologist and ethologist who demonstrated that attachment was both innate and aided in survival.在洛伦兹1935年著名的关于印刷术的研究中,他能够证明,在孵化后的某个关键时期内,年轻的鹅会在环境中的附着物上留下印记。洛伦兹甚至能让刚孵出的鹅留下印记。把他看作一个mother"figure.这表明不仅是先天的依恋,but that there is also a critical period during which the formation of attachment relationships is possible.洛伦兹的研究发现,经过一段时间(鹅大约32小时)后,attachment was not likely to occur.

保尔比依恋理论的中心主题是,那些有能力并对婴儿的需求做出反应的母亲建立起一种安全感。婴儿知道照顾者是可靠的,这为孩子在探索世界时感到安全奠定了基础。

Attachment Theory

Bowlby将附件定义为lasting psychological connectedness between human beings."他的依恋行为学理论表明,婴儿天生就需要与护理者形成依恋关系。This is an evolved response that increases a child's chances of survival;babies are born with a number of behaviors,比如哭和咕咕,护理者在生物学上被设定为对这些信号作出反应并照顾婴儿的需要。

虽然母亲经常将这一角色与主要照顾者和依恋者联系在一起,鲍尔比确实相信婴儿可以与他人形成这种联系。连接键的形成提供了舒适性,安全性,and nourishment,但鲍尔比指出,喂养不是这种依恋的基础或目的,allowing bonds to be formed with fathers and other significant caregivers.

Bowlby also suggested that attachment forms in a series of stages:

  • 在第一部分预附着阶段,babies recognize their primary caregiver but do not yet have an attachment.他们的哭闹引起了父母的注意和照顾,这对孩子和照顾者都是有益的。As this stage progresses through about three months,婴儿开始更多地认识父母,并产生信任感。
  • 期间任意依恋阶段,婴儿对主要照顾者有明显的偏好,as well as certain secondary caregivers,在他们的生活中。
  • 期间区分依恋期,children form a strong attachment to one individual,当与那个人分离时,会经历分离的痛苦和焦虑。
  • Finally,期间multiple attachment phase,children begin to develop strong attachments to people beyond the primary caregivers.

对心理学的贡献

John Bowlby's research on attachment and child development left a lasting impression on psychology,教育,child care,and parenting.研究人员将他的研究扩展到开发临床治疗技术和预防策略。他的工作也影响了其他著名的心理学家,including his colleagueMary Ainsworth,who also made significant contributions to附着理论通过扩展Bowlby的研究,开发一种观察儿童对护理者依恋的方法。

In a 2002 survey of psychologists published in the Review of General Psychology,鲍尔比被列为20世纪第49位最常被引用的心理学家。

约翰·鲍尔比的主要出版物

BowlbyJ(1946)。母婴保健和心理健康。特色在线娱乐城游戏:PT老虎机日内瓦:世界卫生组织。特色在线娱乐城游戏:PT老虎机

BowlbyJ(1958)。孩子与母亲的关系。国际心理分析杂志,39,1-23。

BowlbyJ(1968)。附系和损失,Vol.1:附件.纽约:基础书籍。

BowlbyJ(1973).附系和损失,Vol.2: Separation,焦虑,和愤怒。伦敦:企鹅出版社。

BowlbyJ(1980)。附系和损失,Vol.3:失落:悲伤和沮丧。纽约:基础书籍。

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文章来源
  • BowlbyJThe Nature of the Childs Tie to His Mother.国际心理分析杂志。1958;39:350-71.
  • Bowlby J.附件。附件和损失:卷1。Loss.纽约:基础书籍;1969.
  • Bretheron,一。(1992).The origins of attachment theory: John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth.发展心理学。1992;28:759-775.
  • Haggbloom,S.J.,Warnick,J.E.Jones,V.K.,Yarbrough,G.L.罗素T.M.,博雷茨基C.M.McGahhey,R....Monte,e.20世纪最著名的100位心理学家。普通心理学回顾。2002;6(2): 139–152.doi:10.1037/1089-2680.6.2.139。
  • 福尔摩斯J约翰·鲍尔比和依恋理论。London: Routledge;1993。