8 Brilliant Social Psychology Experiments

人们真的停下来欣赏世界的美丽吗?How can society encourage people to engage in 特色在线娱乐城游戏:PT老虎机healthy behaviors?Is there anything that can be done to bring peace to rival groups?几十年来,社会心理学家一直在处理类似的问题,and some of the results of their experiments just might surprise you.

强盗洞穴实验

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为什么不同群体之间会发生冲突?根据心理学家穆扎弗·谢里夫的说法,集团间冲突往往是由资源竞争引起的,刻板印象,和偏见。In a controversial experiment,研究人员将22名11至12岁的男孩分成两组,分别安置在俄克拉荷马州强盗洞穴公园的一个营地里。这些男孩被分成两组,并在实验的第一周与其他组员保持联系。

It wasn't until the second phase of the experiment that the children learned that there was another group,在这一点上,实验者让两组人直接竞争。这导致了相当大的分歧,因为男孩们显然喜欢他们自己的小组成员,而轻视另一个小组的成员。In the final phase,the researchers staged tasks that required the two groups to work together.These shared tasks helped the boys get to know members of the other group and eventually led to a truce between the rivals.

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“地铁小提琴手”实验

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2007,acclaimed violinist Josh Bell扮成街头音乐家在繁忙的华盛顿,直流电subway station.贝尔刚刚卖掉了一场平均票价为100美元的音乐会。他是世界上最著名的音乐家之一,用价值350万美元的手工小提琴演奏。Yet most people scurried on their way without stopping to listen to the music.

当孩子们偶尔停下来听的时候,他们的父母会抓住他们,迅速引导他们上路。这个实验提出了一些有趣的问题,即我们如何不仅重视美,而且我们是否真的停下来欣赏我们周围非凡的美作品。

钢琴阶梯实验

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How can you get people to change their daily behavior and make 特色在线娱乐城游戏:PT老虎机healthier choices?在一个社会实验由大众汽车赞助,作为其娱乐理论计划的一部分,即使是最平凡的活动也能激发人们改变他们的行为。In the experiment,a set of stairs was transformed into a giant working keyboard.紧挨着楼梯的是自动扶梯,所以人们可以在走楼梯和乘自动扶梯之间做出选择。

结果显示,66%的人选择楼梯而不是自动扶梯,suggesting that adding an element of fun can inspire people to change their behavior and choose the 特色在线娱乐城游戏:PT老虎机healthier alternative.

The Marshmallow Test Experiment

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在20世纪60年代末和70年代初,a psychologist named Walter Mischel led aseries of experiments on delayed gratification.米舍尔有兴趣了解延迟满足可能是未来生活成功的预兆。In the experiments,children between the ages of 4 and 6 were placed in a room with a treat (often a marshmallow or cookie).离开房间前,实验者告诉每个孩子,如果第一次治疗在15分钟后仍在桌子上,他们将接受第二次治疗。

Follow-up studies conducted years later found that the children who were able to delay gratification did better in a variety of areas,包括学术方面。那些能够等待15分钟进行第二次治疗的人往往具有较高的SAT分数和较高的教育水平。结果表明,这种等待满足的能力不仅是成功的一项基本技能,而且也是在生命早期形成并贯穿一生的东西。

烟雾室实验

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如果你看到有人有麻烦,你认为你会尽力帮忙吗?心理学家发现,这个问题的答案高度依赖于在场的其他人的数量。We are much more likely to help when we are the only witness,but much less likely to lend a hand when we are part of a crowd.

The phenomenon came to the public's attention after the gruesome murder of a young woman named吉诺维斯.While multiple people may have witnessed her attack,在为时已晚之前,没有人求助。这种行为被认为是bystander effect,或者当有其他人在场时人们没有采取行动。

一个经典实验,研究人员让参与者坐在一个房间里填写问卷。突然,房间里开始冒烟。在某些情况下,参与者独自一人,在一些房间里有三个毫无戒心的参与者,and in the final condition there was one participant and two confederates.In the situation involving the two confederates who were in on the experiment,这些演员无视烟雾,继续填写问卷。

当参与者一个人的时候,about three-quarters of the participants left the room calmly to report the smoke to the researchers.In the condition with three real participants,only a little under 40 percent reported the smoke.在两个邦联无视烟雾的最后情况下,a mere 10 percent of participants left to report the smoke.

The experiment is a great example of how much people rely on the responses of others to guide their actions.When something is happening,但似乎没有人回应,人们倾向于从小组中得到提示,并认为不需要做出反应。

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Carlsberg Social Experiment

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你有没有觉得人们根据你的外表对你的评价是不公平的?Or have you ever gotten the wrong first impression of someone based on how they looked?Unfortunately,people are all too quick to base their decisions on snap judgments made when they first meet people.这些基于外在事物的印象有时会导致人们忽视内在的特征和品质。

在一个相当有趣的社会实验中,实际上是一个广告,毫无戒心的夫妇走进拥挤的电影院。150个座位中只有两个已经满了。问题在于,这148个已经坐满的座位是由一群相当粗犷和吓人的男性骑车人占据的。

在这种情况下你会怎么做?Would you take one of the available seats and enjoy the movie,or would you feel intimidated and leave?在非正式实验中,并不是所有的夫妇最终都坐了下来,但最终做到这一点的人得到了观众的欢呼和一轮免费嘉士伯啤酒。这个练习是一个很好的例子,说明为什么人们不应该总是根据封面来判断一本书。

晕效应实验

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在1920年发表的一篇论文中描述的实验中,,psychologist Edward Thorndike要求军队指挥官对下属的各种特征进行评级。桑代克对学习一种品质的印象很感兴趣,such as intelligence,对其他个人特征的理解,比如领导力,loyalty,诚实。

桑代克发现,当人们对一个特征有好印象时,这些好的感觉往往会影响对其他品质的感知。For example,认为某人有吸引力可以创造halo effect这也让人们相信人是善良的,smart,and funny.相反的结果也是正确的。Negative feelings about one characteristic lead to negative impressions of an individual's other features.

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虚假共识实验

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During the late 1970s,研究人员LeeRoss在他的同事中进行了一些开眼实验。In one experiment,研究人员让参与者选择一种方法来应对想象中的冲突,然后估计有多少人会选择同样的解决方案。他们发现,无论受访者选择哪一个选项,他们倾向于相信绝大多数其他人也会选择同样的选择。

在另一项研究中,the experimenters asked students on campus to walk around carrying a large advertisement that read"在乔家吃饭.研究人员随后要求学生们估计还有多少人会同意佩戴这则广告。They found that those who agreed to carry the sign believed that the majority of people would also agree to carry the sign.那些拒绝的人认为大多数人也会拒绝。

这些实验的结果证明了心理学中所谓的false consensus effect.No matter what our beliefs,选项,或行为,我们倾向于相信大多数其他人也同意我们的观点,并以同样的方式行事。

A Word From Verywell

社会心理学是一个丰富多样的领域,它为人们如何在群体中行为以及行为如何受到社会压力的影响提供了迷人的见解。Exploring some of these classic social psychology experiments can provide a glimpse at some of the fascinating research that has emerged from this field of study.

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文章来源
  • Latane,B,达利,JM。Group Inhibition of Bystander Intervention in Emergencies.人格与社会心理学杂志。1968;10(3):215–221。
  • 罗斯L格林尼D房子,P.“false consensus effect":社会认知和归因过程中的自我中心偏见。实验社会心理学杂志。1977;13(3):79-301。