理解阅读障碍及其与多动症的关系

Dyslexia and ADHD homework note books
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Dyslexia是特定的学习障碍(ld)基于神经的。它以语言为基础,使人们学会阅读,拼写,解码,识别具有挑战性的词语。因此,阅读理解,词汇,and general knowledge is reduced compared to other children the same age who do not have dyslexia.记得,阅读困难不是智力的反映。Most people with dyslexia have normal or above average intelligence.

ADHD and dyslexia are known to frequently co-exist together.Dr.罗素·巴克利在他的书中解释道Taking Charge of ADHD: The Complete Authoritative Guide for Parents,"that children with ADHD are more likely to have a learning disability than children who do not have ADHD.The most common LD is dyslexia.

区分多动症和阅读困难的困难

很难知道哪些挑战与多动症或阅读障碍有关。虽然多动症涉及注意力,而阅读障碍影响阅读,the conditions can look similar.这里有三个例子。

Distraction:患有多动症和阅读障碍的儿童都会出现分心;然而,分心的原因是不同的。A child with ADHD might appear distracted because it is difficult for them to pay attention.,一个患有阅读障碍的孩子可能会因为阅读需要很大的努力而分心,而且他们的精力也在减少。

流利:流利的读者能够准确地阅读,相对速度和,if reading aloud,在单词中添加表达式。为了理解他们所读到的,孩子需要能流利地阅读。A child with ADHD might not be a fluent reader because they lose their place or skip endings because their fast brain has raced on to the next part.Someone with dyslexia might not be a fluent reader because they spend a long time sounding out each word or reading words incorrectly.Whatever the cause,both affect the reader's ability to understand what they read.这也意味着阅读对他们来说不是一种愉快的活动。

Writing:书写和笔法也可能有问题。患有多动症的人可能在组织和校对方面有问题,有阅读障碍的孩子拼写有问题,语法,组织思想,proofreading,还有手写。A good way to distinguish the two conditions is to remember that dyslexia problems occur mostly during reading and writing activities,鉴于ADHD症状appear in many settings and are more behavioral in nature.

Co-Existing Conditions

In the past,多动症和阅读障碍被认为是相互独立的。然而,作为博士托马斯E.布朗在他的书《儿童和成人对多动症的新理解》中解释道,' recent research has shown that theexecutive functionimpairments related to ADHD are also associated with dyslexia.

多动症和阅读困难是分开的情况;然而,if a person has both,it means they have the broad executive functions impairments (problems focusing,using working memory,etc.),as well as an impairment of the particular skills needed for reading,例如,快速处理符号。

Some people say they have math dyslexia.这不是官方术语;然而,因为没多少人听说过计算障碍(一种数学障碍)。说“我有数学阅读困难”是描述他们情况的一种简单方法。

多动症与阅读障碍的诊断

The two conditions are diagnosed differently and often by different professionals.多动症被认为是一种精神障碍,诊断精神病医生说,心理学家,神经学家,还有一些家庭医生。

Dyslexia is an educational issue rather than a medical issue so is typically not diagnosed by medical professionals.  However,sometimes a developmental pediatrician can diagnose dyslexia if they have had training in cognition and learning.Typically a clinical psychologist,学校心理学家,教育心理学家,神经心理学家都诊断出阅读障碍。

Since dyslexia is not a medical condition,阅读困难的评估通常不包括在医疗保险中。阅读困难的严重程度从轻微到严重不等,which is also true of people with ADHD.This means no two people will have symptoms that are exactly the same.

阅读障碍治疗

有各种专门的阅读障碍程序。它们通常基于或包括奥尔顿-吉林厄姆方法的要素。塞缪尔·奥尔顿和安娜·吉林汉姆是阅读和语言掌握的先驱。20世纪30年代,吉林厄姆出版了详细的阅读指导材料,writing,拼写。它已经成为迄今为止研究最多的方法。

Not all reading programs are helpful for dyslexic students.寻找那些包括音位感知的,拼写规则的流畅性和详细指导原则。

您的儿童学校可能有经过专门培训的教师,可以提供他们需要的帮助。然而,不是所有的学校都这样做,在这种情况下,你可以在放学后找一个特别的导师和你的孩子一起工作。

在学校里为多动症和阅读困难提供住宿,这对你的孩子能够发挥他们的学习潜力非常有帮助。

阅读障碍与发展性阅读障碍

阅读困难和发展性阅读困难是相同的条件。通常,当有人说阅读困难,他们指的是发展性阅读困难,继承的条件。另一种类型的阅读障碍是后天性阅读障碍,which means a person became dyslexic due to a brain lesion such as after experiencing a traumatic brain injury or having a stroke.

This can happen with ADHD too.Most peopleinherit ADHD从一个家庭成员那里,然而,一小部分人可能会出现ADHD症状,无论是在出生前还是在发育过程中,由于各种原因可能会损伤大脑。

Confidence and Self-Esteem

One of the biggest challenges for children with ADHD and dyslexia is being able to feel good about themselves.经常,their confidence and self-esteem are low as they struggle with tasks that their friends and siblings find easy.Here are three things you can do to help:

1)识别:When children know they have a condition with a name,像多动症和阅读障碍,这对他们有帮助。他们明白为什么他们是这样的,它阻止了他们为自己寻找解释,通常用“我很笨”和“我很笨”来形容。"

2)努力,非结果:对孩子完成任务的努力给予积极的反馈,而不是他们的成绩或成绩。A child with dyslexia and ADHD has to work harder than other students,然而,这种努力并不总是反映在他们的成绩上。知道他们的努力得到你的认可对孩子的自尊心有很大影响。

3)校外活动:当你的孩子对校外活动表现出兴趣时,encourage it.Being good at something,whether it is amartial art,一项运动,工艺或手工艺,建立信心。它对生活的其他领域有积极的涟漪效应,包括学校相关活动。

为时已晚

当你学习阅读困难时,a common message is ‘early intervention is key.' Early detection of any condition is of course helpful.然而,如果你意识到你的孩子长大后有阅读困难,do not feel guilty.检测并寻求适当的治疗永远不会太迟。

如果你的孩子有多动症和阅读障碍,多动症的症状可以掩盖失语症的迹象。也,聪明的孩子会设法弥补和掩饰他们的困难,which makes detection harder for you.

If you are reading this as an adult and think you might have dyslexia,你仍然可以得到阅读困难评估。Even if you are no longer in school or大学,understanding the root of your challenges is helpful for your confidence and self-esteem.

未来

ADHD和阅读障碍都不能治愈。然而,他们都可以得到治疗和管理,这样你的孩子就能过上成功的生活。Children often get a great deal of hope and validation when they hear of famous people who face the same challenges as they do.For example,Steven Spielberg has dyslexia,Justin Timberlake has ADHD,理查德·布兰森患有多动症和阅读障碍。

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文章来源
  • 罗素A巴克利,博士。Taking Charge of ADHD.The Complete Authoritative Guide for Parents.吉尔福德出版社2013年。
  • 布朗E.T.儿童和成人ADHD的新理解:执行功能损害。劳特利奇;2013.