双相情感障碍综述

Explore key differences between the types

条款目录

双相情感障碍是一种精神健康状况,由极端情绪障碍的时期(更为特色在线娱乐城游戏:PT老虎机人所知的是发作)定义。双相情感影响人的情绪,thoughts,and behavior.

There are two main types of bipolar disorders: bipolar I and bipolar II.根据Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders,bipolar I disorder involves episodes of severe mania and often depression.Bipolar II disorder involves a less severe form of mania called hypomania.

双极I和双极II的区别
林雨果的插图。非常好,2018。

症状

尽管两种类型的双相情感障碍在躁狂方面有很大不同,症状有很多相似之处。

抑郁发作

In bipolar I disorder,严重抑郁症发作(一次或多次)usuallyoccurs,但这不是必须的。双相情感障碍包括一个或多个严重的抑郁症发作。出现在严重抑郁症发作中的常见症状包括:

  • 失眠或嗜睡
  • 无法解释或无法控制的哭泣
  • 严重的疲劳
  • Loss of interest in things the patient enjoys during euthymia
  • 反复出现的死亡或suicide

这两种疾病可能包括euthymia-无症状或”正常的states.

Mania

狂躁发作至少持续七天。经历躁狂发作的个人可能经历:

  • 兴奋的感觉
  • Less need for sleep
  • 性欲增强
  • 幻觉或错觉
  • Marked increase in energy

在躁狂发作期间,个人可能会从事冒险或鲁莽行为。For example,有人可能沉溺于危险的性行为,花费过多的钱,或者做出冲动的决定。

It's important to note that experiencing mania does not automatically mean a person will become violent or dangerous.有时人们会认为躁狂发作意思是某人变成了maniac."That's not true.

轻躁狂

An individual experiencing a hypomanic episode may experience similar symptoms but their functioning won't be markedly impaired.许多经历躁郁症II的人都喜欢增加能量和减少睡眠需求。

An episode of hypomania does not escalate to a point that一个人需要住院治疗,which may happen with a person experiencing mania—especially if he or she is becoming a danger to others and/or themselves.

原因

虽然双相I型障碍的确切原因尚不清楚,遗传学被认为起着重要作用。这是证据,部分地,通过对双生子的研究,其中一个或两个都有双相情感障碍。In 40 percent of identical twins (those with identical gene sets),both twins were found to be bipolar compared to less than 10 percent of fraternal twins (who don't share all the same genes).

Other contributing factors include abnormalities in a person's brain circuitry,神经递质异常,and environmental factors such as儿童创伤或滥用。

Diagnosis

什么时候?诊断双相情感障碍(无论类型如何)a physician or clinician must rule out other illnesses such as分裂情感障碍,,分裂症,delusional disorder,or schizophreniform disorder.

Bipolar disorder cannot be diagnosed like other illnesses where a blood test,X-ray,或者体检可以提供明确的诊断。诊断是基于一套标准,一个人必须满足,以被视为双极。

知情诊断可能包括排除其他物理原因的特定测试。This may involve a drug screen,影像学检查(脑CT或MRI),脑电图,and a full battery of diagnostic blood tests.

治疗

双相I型障碍的治疗高度个人化,基于症状的类型和严重程度。

情绪稳定剂是治疗过程的核心,and other agents are often used,例如:

在更严重的情况下,,电休克疗法may be used to help relieve mania or severe depression.

Both Types Should Be Properly Treated

因为轻躁症比双相I型障碍的轻躁症更严重,bipolar II is often described as"“温和”than bipolar I—but this is not completely accurate. Certainly,有躁郁症的人我在躁狂时会有更严重的症状,但是,轻躁症仍然是一种严重的疾病,可能会导致改变生活的后果,因此应该适当地加以解决。

In addition,研究表明,双相情感障碍主要由较长和更严重的抑郁症发作。事实上,随着时间的推移,people with bipolar II become less likely to return to fully normal functioning between episodes.

One学习specifically concluded that bipolar type II was linked to a poorer 特色在线娱乐城游戏:PT老虎机health-related quality of life compared to type I.即使在长时间的安乐死中,这仍然是真的。

因此,experts tend to believe that bipolar II disorder is equally (if not more) disabling than bipolar I disorder because it can lead to more lifetime days spent depressed and not doing as well overall between episodes.所有类型的双相情感障碍都应进行适当的治疗。

应对

和许多精神健康状况一样,特色在线娱乐城游戏:PT老虎机bipolar disorder is associated with a certain stigma in society,可能使应付这种情况more difficult for you or a loved one.Know that stigma very often develops because of lack of knowledge—those who make comments or discriminate are usually ignorant or have fear based on what they think they know about the disorder.

Whether or not someone with bipolar faces stigma directly,要知道,应对这种情况的最好方法是与经历过这种情况的人联系,并寻求专业帮助。你也可以与耻辱作斗争,帮助你更好地应对,and read up on你的权利.

In Kids

Bipolar disorder can occur in kids of any age.It's important for parents and caregivers to be aware of the unique signs—they should pay attention to a child's functioning,的感情,and any family history of the disorder.With a timely diagnosis,可以更好地制定症状管理的治疗计划。

A Word From Verywell

双相情感障碍是一种复杂的情绪障碍。如果你担心你或你所爱的人有躁郁症的症状,seek medical attention for a proper evaluation.

Although bipolar is not curable,它是可以治疗的。有了正确的药物和支持,症状可以控制到生活质量不会受到严重影响的程度。

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