ADHD的病史和用药时间表

Schoolgirl showing a pill in classroom,慕尼黑Bavaria,Germany
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While ADHD wasn't always recognized,diagnosed,or treated as much as it is now,doctors have actually known about ADHD for some time.

Names for ADHD

他们并不总是这么叫ADHD虽然,instead using terms like:

  • 脑损伤
  • 脑损伤儿童
  • 超动力冲动障碍
  • hyperexcitability syndrome
  • clumsy child syndrome
  • hyperactive child syndrome
  • hyperkinetic reaction of childhood
  • minimal brain dysfunction
  • organic brain disease
  • nervous child
  • 注意力缺陷障碍

Even now,关于是否称之为ADD or ADHD.

注意缺陷多动障碍病史

最早提到的多动症样紊乱可追溯到18世纪末和亚历山大·克里顿爵士。有人甚至试图说许多名人和历史人物可能患有多动症,比如莫扎特,达芬奇,or Ben Franklin.

多动症的研究通常被认为始于20世纪初,though:

  • 早在1902年,乔治·弗雷德里克爵士就对有多动症症状的儿童进行了第一次描述,并认为这是一种“道德控制缺陷”。
  • 1908,Alfred F.Tredgold describes 'high-grade feeble-minded' children who likely had a form of mild brain damage that caused them to have ADHD-like anti-school behavior
  • a study is published describing the use of Benzedrine (racemic amphetamine) in children with behavior problems in 1937 by Dr.Charles Bradley,在给患有严重头痛的孩子用药时,他们意外地了解到了苯丙胺的益处,但注意到这反而有助于他们的行为和学校表现
  • 第一版Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders(DSM) is published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) in 1952 and includes no mention of an ADHD-like disorder
  • hyperkinetic impulse disorder is first used to describe children with ADHD symptoms in 1957
  • Herbert Freed and Charles Peifer study the use of Thorazine (chlorpromazine) on 'hyperkinetic emotionally disturbed children' in 1957
  • C.Keith Conners publishes a study on the effects of Ritalin (methylphenidate) in 'emotionally disturbed children' in 1963
  • in 1966,最小脑功能障碍综合征成为一个流行的术语来描述儿童的各种组合的认知障碍,概念化,language,memory,and control of attention,impulse,or motor function.'
  • in 1967 and 1968,国家心理健康研究所(NIMH)向研究人员提供了一系列资助,以研究刺特色在线娱乐城游戏:PT老虎机激剂对患有ADHD症状的儿童的效果。
  • 第二版Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders(DSM-II) is published by the APA in 1968 and includes the disorders hyperkinetic reaction of childhood or adolescence and organic brain syndrome
  • the first Conner's Rating Scale is published by C.Keith Conners in 1969,这最终导致康纳父母和老师的评分量表的修订版。
  • in 1970,the华盛顿邮报发表了一篇报道,描述了奥马哈5%到10%的学龄儿童如何Nebraska were receiving stimulants,like Ritalin,to control their behavior,尽管统计数据只涉及特殊教育项目的儿童。The story creates a controversy around the diagnosis of ADHD and use of stimulants,especially since it implies that many parents are coerced into medicating their kids.
  • the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970 make stimulants,such as Ritalin (methylphenidate),附表三药物和1971年附表二药物
  • Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 can allow students with ADHD who qualify to get additional help and services at school to help them succeed
  • 1975年,随着几本书的出版,一场反利他林运动在很大程度上扩大了范围,这有助于强化人们的信念,即多动症不是真正的诊断。是制药公司为了赚钱而创造的,or that hyperactivity is caused by food allergies and food additives,etc.
  • the AAP publishes their first statement about ADHD,,多动症儿童用药,这说明,除了在这种方法适用的情况下考虑非药物治疗之外,' that 'there is a place for stimulant drugs in the treatment of hyperkinetic children.'
  • the third edition of theDiagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders(DSM-III) is published by the APA in 1980 and includes Attention Deficit Disorder for the first time,including the subtypes ADD with hyperactivity,ADD without hyperactivity,and ADD residual type
  • Dr.Russell A.Barkley writes his first of 17 books about ADHD in 1981 -多动症儿童:诊断和治疗手册.
  • the DSM-III-R (revised edition),1987年出版,again changes the name,this time to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD),but doesn't include any subtypes
  • a 1987 report from the AAP,,Medication for Children With an Attention Deficit Disorder,offers 'indications for drug therapy in the treatment of attention deficit disorder,' such as Ritalin,Dexedrine,Cylertand 'other potentially useful drugs,' including tricyclic antidepressants
  • Dr.巴克利开始出版The ADHD Reportnewsletter in 1993
  • the fourth edition of theDiagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders(DSM-IV-TR)由APA于2000年出版,描述了三种类型的注意力缺陷多动障碍(ADHD)。including ADHD,组合式注意缺陷多动障碍主要是注意力不集中的类型,注意缺陷多动障碍主要是过度活跃的冲动型
  • 约瑟夫·比德曼在1995年发表了数百篇关于多动症儿童的医学研究中的第一篇。
  • 更新的AAP报告,,Medication for Children With Attention Disorders,1996年出版,stresses that drug therapy should be combined 'with appropriate management of the child's environment and curriculum.'
  • the 2000Clinical Practice Guideline: Diagnosis and Evaluation of the Child With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorderfrom the AAP offer clear guidance for pediatricians and parents on the assessment and treatment of kids with ADHD
  • Strattera,第一种非刺激性治疗多动症,2002年批准
  • warning labels on ADHD medications are updated in 2007 to include warnings about the possibility of cardiovascular risks (sudden death in children and adolescents with structural cardiac abnormalities or other serious heart problems) and risks of adverse psychiatric symptoms (hallucinations,妄想思维,或躁狂症)。

ADHD用药时间线

Dr.Bradley's studies on the use of Benzedrine was once thought of as heralding the modern era of ADHD treatment,but that role has likely now passed to the newer,once-a-day ADHD medications that most kids take.

Although it seems like a lot of differentADHD medicationshave been developed over the years,尤其是在过去的十年里,most of them use same basic active ingredients (methylphenidate and amphetamine/dextroamphetamine) that have been used since the earliest days of ADHD research.

  • 1937 - Benzedrine (racemic amphetamine)
  • 1943 - Desoxyn (methamphetamine hydrochloride)
  • 1955 - Ritalin (methylphenidate)
  • 1955-1983 - Biphetamine (mixed amphetamine/dextroamphetamine resin)
  • 1960 - Adderall (mixed amphetamine/dextroamphetamine salts)
  • 1975-2003-赛尔特(Pemoline)
  • 1976年-右美沙特(右旋安非他明)
  • 1976-地塞德林(右旋安非他明)
  • 1982 - Ritalin SR
  • 1999年-偏日期ER(哌醋甲酯)
  • 2000 -Concerta(methylphenidate)
  • 2000-甲基-ER(哌醋甲酯)
  • 2001 - Metadate CD (methylphenidate)
  • 2001-福卡林(右哌醋甲酯)
  • 2001 -苯丙胺盐混合物(mixed amphetamine salts)
  • 2002 - Ritalin LA
  • 2002 - Methylin (methylphenidate) oral solution and chewable tablet
  • 2002 - Strattera (atomoxetine)
  • 2005 -福克林XR(dexmethylphenidate)
  • 2006-Daytrana(哌醋甲酯贴片)
  • 2007Vyvanse(利地塞米非他明二甲酰化物)
  • 2008 - Procentra (liquid dextroamphetamine)
  • 2009 -胍法新(guanfacine hydrochloride)
  • 2010 - Kapvay (clonidine hydrocloride)
  • 2012 - Quillivant XR (liquid methylphenidate)
  • 2016-Adzenys xr-odt(安非他明口腔崩解片)
  • 2016 - Quillichew ER (chewable methylphenidate)

Many of these ADHD medications,即使是扩展版本,are now available as泛型.

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文章来源
  • AAP。Medication for Hyperkinetic Children.Pediatrics,APR 1975;55: 560 - 562.
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  • C.Keith Conners。Symposium: Behavior modification by drugs: II.刺激药物对最小脑功能障碍儿童的心理影响。Pediatrics,May 1972;49: 702 - 708.
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